Overview of the fall of Egypt, with a detailed discussion of Cleopatra"s relationship with Mark Antony.
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Soon after her return khổng lồ Alexandria, in 44 bce, Cleopatra’s coruler, Ptolemy XIV, died. Cleopatra now ruled with her infant son, Ptolemy XV Caesar. When, at the Battle of Philippi in 42 bce, Caesar’s assassins were routed, Mark Antony became the heir apparent of Caesar’s authority—or so it seemed, for Caesar’s great-nephew và personal heir, Octavian, was but a sickly boy. Antony, now controller of Rome’s eastern territories, sent for Cleopatra so that she might explain her role in the aftermath of Caesar’s assassination. She phối out for Tarsus in Asia Minor loaded with gifts, having delayed her departure lớn heighten Antony’s expectation. She entered the city by sailing up the Cydnus River in a barge while dressed in the robes of the new Isis. Antony, who equated himself with the god Dionysus, was captivated. Forgetting his wife, Fulvia, who in Italy was doing her best lớn maintain her husband’s interests against the growing menace of young Octavian, Antony returned khổng lồ Alexandria, where he treated Cleopatra not as a “protected” sovereign but as an independent monarch.
In Alexandria, Cleopatra & Antony formed a society of “inimitable livers” whose members lived what some historians have interpreted as a life of debauchery và folly and others have interpreted as lives dedicated to lớn the cult of the mystical god Dionysus.
In 40 bce Cleopatra gave birth khổng lồ twins, whom she named Alexander Helios & Cleopatra Selene. Antony had already left Alexandria to return to Italy, where he was forced lớn conclude a temporary settlement with Octavian. As part of this settlement, he married Octavian’s sister, Octavia (Fulvia having died). Three years later Antony was convinced that he và Octavian could never come to lớn terms. His marriage lớn Octavia now an irrelevance, he returned to the east and reunited with Cleopatra. Antony needed Cleopatra’s financial tư vấn for his postponed Parthian campaign; in return, Cleopatra requested the return of much of Egypt’s eastern empire, including large portions of Syria và Lebanon & even the rich balsam groves of Jericho.
Chiến dịch Parthia là 1 thất bại tốn kém, cũng giống như cuộc đoạt được tạm thời Armenia . Tuy nhiên, vào khoảng thời gian 34 bce Antony đã ăn uống mừng thắng lợi trở về Alexandria. Tiếp theo là một lễ lưu niệm được gọi là "Sự quyên góp của Alexandria." Đám đông kéo đến Nhà thi đấu để coi Cleopatra cùng Antony ngồi bên trên ngai kim cương trên bục bạc bẽo với bé cái của mình ngồi bên trên ngai kim cương thấp hơn một chút sát bên họ. Antony tuyên cha Caesarion là đàn ông của Caesar - cho nên vì thế phải xuống hạng Octavian, who had been adopted by Caesar as his son & heir, to legal illegitimacy. Cleopatra was hailed as queen of kings, Caesarion as king of kings. Alexander Helios was awarded Armenia và the territory beyond the Euphrates, his infant brother Ptolemy the lands to the west of it. The boys’ sister, Cleopatra Selene, was khổng lồ be ruler of Cyrene. It was clear to Octavian, watching from Rome, that Antony intended his extended family lớn rule the civilized world. A propaganda war erupted. Octavian seized Antony’s will (or what he claimed khổng lồ be Antony’s will) from the temple of the Vestal Virgins, to lớn whom it had been entrusted, và revealed khổng lồ the Roman people that not only had Antony bestowed Roman possessions on a foreign woman but intended to be buried beside her in Egypt. The rumour quickly spread that Antony also intended khổng lồ transfer the capital from Rome to Alexandria.
Antony and Cleopatra spent the winter of 32–31 bce in Greece. The Roman Senate deprived Antony of his prospective consulate for the following year, & it then declared war against Cleopatra. The naval Battle of Actium, in which Octavian faced the combined forces of Antony & Cleopatra on September 2, 31 bce, was a disaster for the Egyptians. Antony and Cleopatra fled to Egypt, & Cleopatra retired to lớn her mausoleum as Antony went off lớn fight his last battle. Receiving the false news that Cleopatra had died, Antony fell on his sword. In a last excess of devotion, he had himself carried to lớn Cleopatra’s retreat và there died, after bidding her to make her peace with Octavian.
Cleopatra chôn cất Antony và tiếp đến tự sát. Phương tiện đi lại cái chết của cô ấy là không kiên cố chắn, tuy nhiên các nhà văn truyền thống tin rằng cô ấy sẽ tự sát bằng một asp , biểu tượng của hoàng tộc thần thánh. Cô ấy 39 tuổi và đã là thiếu nữ hoàng vào 22 năm và một nửa yêu thương của Antony vào 11 năm. Họ được táng cùng nhau, như ý của cả hai, và cùng với họ được táng là cộng hòa La Mã .
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